Chemoresistance is the most significant reason for the failure of cancer treatment following radical cystectomy. The response rate to the first-line chemotherapy of cisplatin and gemcitabine does not exceed 50%. In our previous research, elevated BMI1 (B-cell specific Moloney murine leukemia virus integration region 1) expression in bladder cancer conferred poor survival and was associated with chemoresistance. Herein, via analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas database and validation of clinical samples, BMI1 was elevated in patients with bladder cancer resistant to cisplatin and gemcitabine, which conferred tumor relapse and progression. Consistently, BMI1 was markedly increased in the established cisplatin- and gemcitabine-resistant T24 cells (T24/DDP&GEM). Functionally, BMI1 overexpression dramatically promoted drug efflux, enhanced viability and decreased apoptosis of bladder cancer cells upon treatment with cisplatin or gemcitabine, whereas BMI1 downregulation reversed this effect. Mechanically, upon interaction with p53, BMI1 was recruited on the promoter of miR-3682-3p gene concomitant with an increase in the mono-ubiquitination of histone H2A lysine 119, leading to transcription repression of miR-3682-3p gene followed by derepression of ABCB1 (ATP binding cassette subfamily B member 1) gene. Moreover, suppression of P-glycoprotein by miR-3682-3p mimics or its inhibitor XR-9576, could significantly reverse chemoresistance of T24/DDP&GEM cells. These results provided a novel insight into a portion of the mechanism underlying BMI1-mediated chemoresistance in bladder cancer.