Studies aiming to identify the significance of the carotid artery perivascular fat density are limited. The present study investigated the distribution pattern of pericarotid fat and its association with imaging markers of cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD). In total, 572 subjects who underwent both neck computed tomography angiography and cranial magnetic resonance imaging were analyzed. The pericarotid fat density near the origin of the internal carotid artery (ICA) and imaging markers of CSVD, such as lacunes, white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) and dilated perivascular spaces (PVSs), were assessed. We found that an increased pericarotid fat density was associated with the presence of lacunes and a higher WMH grade in all subjects, but in the patients with acute ischemic stroke, there was a difference only among the WMH grades. There was no significant difference in the pericarotid fat density in different grades of PVSs. The patients with acute ischemic stroke had a significantly higher mean pericarotid fat density than those without stroke. In conclusion, our study provides evidence suggesting that an increased pericarotid fat density is associated with the presence and degree of WMHs and lacunes. Our findings suggested that features that appear to extend beyond the vessel lumen of the ICA may be linked to CSVD.