The immune cells and the repertoire of T cells and B cells play an important role in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Exploring their expression and distribution in SLE can help us better understand this lethal autoimmune disease. In this study, we used a single-cell 5’ RNA sequence and single-cell T cell receptor (TCR)/B cell receptor (BCR) to study the immune cells and the repertoire from ten SLE patients and the paired normal controls (NC). The results showed that 9732 cells correspondence to 12 cluster immune cell types were identified in NC, whereas 11042 cells correspondence to 16 cluster immune cell types were identified in SLE. The results demonstrated that neutrophil, macrophage, and dendritic cells were accumulated in SLE by annotating the immune cell types. Besides, the bioinformatics analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in these cell types indicates their role in inflammation response. In addition, patients with SLE showed increased TCR and BCR clonotypes compared with the healthy controls. Furthermore, patients with SLE showed biased usage of TCR and BCR V(D)J genes. Taken together, we characterized the transcriptome and TCR/BCR immune repertoire profiles of SLE patients, which may provide a new avenue for the diagnosis and treatment of SLE.