Research Paper Advance Articles
Multifaceted investigation underlies diverse mechanisms contributing to the downregulation of Hedgehog pathway-associated genes INTU and IFT88 in lung adenocarcinoma and uterine corpus endometrial carcinoma
- 1 School of Life Sciences, Faculty of Science, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China
Received: June 1, 2022 Accepted: August 25, 2022 Published: September 7, 2022https://doi.org/10.18632/aging.204262
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Copyright: © 2022 Chan and Chen. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Hedgehog (Hh) signaling primarily functions in the control of mammalian embryonic development but also has roles in cancer. The Hh activation depends on ciliogenesis, a cellular process that describes outgrowth of the primary cilium from cell membrane. Ciliogenesis initiation requires a set of proteins known as planar cell polarity (PCP) effectors. Inturned (INTU) is a PCP effector that reportedly functions synergistically with Hh signaling in basal cell carcinoma, suggesting that INTU has an oncogenic role. In this study, we carried out a pan-cancer investigation on the prognostic significance of INTU in different types of cancer. We demonstrated that INTU downregulation correlated with reduced survival probabilities in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) and uterine corpus endometrial carcinoma (UCEC) patients. Similar expression patterns and prognostic values were identified for intraflagellar transport 88 (IFT88), another Hh pathway-associated gene. We elucidated multiple mechanisms at transcriptional, post-transcriptional and translational levels that involved transcription factor 4 and non-coding RNAs-associated regulatory networks contributing to the reduction of INTU and IFT88 levels in LUAD and UCEC samples. Taken together, this study demonstrates the prognostic significance of the Hh-related genes INTU and IFT88 in LUAD and UCEC and further delineates multifaceted mechanisms leading to INTU and IFT88 downregulation in tumor samples.