Background: Osteosarcoma is the most common bone malignancy in teenagers, and warrants effective measures for diagnosis and prognosis. Oxidative stress (OS) is the key driver of several cancers and other diseases.

Methods: The TARGET-osteosarcoma database was employed as the training cohort and GSE21257 and GSE39055 was applied for external validation. The patients were classified into the high- and low-risk groups based on the median risk score of each sample. ESTIMATE and CIBERSORT were applied for the evaluation of tumor microenvironment immune infiltration. GSE162454 of single-cell sequencing was employed for analyzing OS-related genes.

Results: Based on the gene expression and clinical data of 86 osteosarcoma patients in the TARGET database, we identified eight OS-related genes, including MAP3K5, G6PD, HMOX1, ATF4, ACADVL, MAPK1, MAPK10, and INS. In both the training and validation sets, the overall survival of patients in the high-risk group was significantly worse than that in the low-risk group. The ESTIMATE algorithm revealed that patients in the high-risk group had higher tumor purity but lower immune score and stromal score. In addition, the CIBERSORT algorithm showed that the M0 and M2 macrophages were the predominant infiltrating cells in osteosarcoma. Based on the expression analysis of immune checkpoint, CD274(PDL1), CXCL12, BTN3A1, LAG3, and IL10 were identified as potential immune therapy targets. Analysis of the single cell sequencing data also revealed the expression patterns of OS-related genes in different cell types.

Conclusions: An OS-related prognostic model can accurately provide the prognosis of osteosarcoma patients, and may help identify suitable candidates for immunotherapy.