Ubiquitination of the proteins is crucial for governing protein degradation and regulating fundamental cellular processes. Deubiquitinases (DUBs) have emerged as significant regulators of multiple pathways associated with cancer and other diseases, owing to their capacity to remove ubiquitin from target substrates and modulate signaling. Consequently, they represent potential therapeutic targets for cancer and other life-threatening conditions. USP43 belongs to the DUBs family involved in cancer development and progression. This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the existing scientific evidence implicating USP43 in cancer development. Additionally, it will investigate potential small-molecule inhibitors that target DUBs that may have the capability to function as anti-cancer medicines.