Figure 4. Stress resistance and lifespan enhanced by downregulation of AMP genes in Imd pathway. (A) Gene expressions of AttC and loco in AttC-P homozygous mutant, which were normalized with those of wild-type (+/+: 1 fold) using total RNAs of 2-day-old male flies developed at 25°C. (B) The survival curve for oxidation stress using 2-day-old male flies (p-value: log-rank test). (C) Increased stress resistance of 2-day-old AttC-P mutant flies from the wild-type flies (+/+: 0%). The median survival times of flies under each stress (starvation, oxidation or heat) were calculated from the several survival curves (B) and then, the percentages changed from wild-type flies are represented as average ± SEM. (D) The lifespan of adult male flies between the wild-type and AttC-P mutant. Parenthesis: increased percentage of mean lifespan of AttC-P mutant from the wild-type flies. (E) The survival curve for heat stress using 2-day-old male flies between single transgene controls (+/armG4, DptBRi/+) and DptB downregulation in a whole body (DptBRi/armG4). (F) Increased stress resistance of 2-day-old DptBRi/armG4 flies from the control +/armG4 (0%). Parenthesis: increased percentage of median survival time of the DptBRi/armG4 flies from another control DptBRi/+. (G) The lifespan of adult male flies between the two controls and DptB downregulation. Parenthesis: increase percentage of DptBRi/armG4 flies from the DptBRi/+ control.