Figure 4. Combination of curcumin with HHT inhibited the EMT in lymphoma cells by inhibiting the TGF-β1/Smad3 signaling pathway. Raji cells were treated with 5 ng/mL HHT or/and 10 μM curcumin for 72 h. (A) p-Smad3, Smad3, E-cadherin, and N-cadherin expression were measured in Raji cells using Western blotting. (B, C, D) Relative cellular p-Smad3, E-cadherin, and N-cadherin normalized to Smad3, β-actin, and β-actin, respectively. (E, F) Nuclear Smad4 expression in Raji cells was measured by Western blotting. Relative Smad4 expression was determined by normalizing to Histone H3. **P < 0.01 compared to control group; ##P < 0.01 compared to HHT group. (G) Raji cells were treated with HHT and curcumin for 72 h or treated with HHT, curcumin and TGF-β. CCK-8 assay was used to measure cell viability. **P < 0.01.