Aging-US: Exosomes attenuate ischemic retinal injury in vitro and in vivo09-08-2021
Aging-US published a Special Collection on Eye Disease which included "Exosomes derived from BDNF-expressing 293T attenuate ischemic retinal injury in vitro and in vivo" which reported that this study investigated whether exosomes derived from BDNF-expressing 293T cells can be internalized by ischemic retinal cells and exert neuroprotective roles.
The results demonstrated that 293T-Exo significantly attenuated the loss of cell proliferation and cell death in R28 cells in response to oxygen-glucose deprivation treatment. Mechanistic studies revealed that the endocytosis of 293T-Exo by R28 cells displayed dose- and temperature-dependent patterns and may be mediated by the caveolar endocytic pathway via the integrin receptor.
Dr. Genlin Li and Dr. Yanling Wang said, "Retinal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) emerges in many ocular diseases and is a leading cause of neuronal death and dysfunction, resulting in irreversible visual impairment or blindness."
Growing reports demonstrated that retinal ischemia is a primary contributor to the pathogenesis of multiple diseases, such as retinal vascular occlusions, diabetic retinopathy, central retinal vein occlusion, as well as age-associated macular degeneration. Exosomes are synthesized and released by various cell types and transport active biological molecules to regulate the physiological activities of recipient cells. Thus, exosomes play an essential role in intercellular communication. Therefore, understanding the mechanism of exosome uptake would promote the development of more efficient delivery systems for disease treatment.
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, a member of the nerve growth factor gene family, is an essential multi-functional factor in various neuronal processes, including learning and memory, dendritic and synaptic plasticity, and axonal growth.
Figure 9. Endocytosis of 293T-Exo by retinal neurons and RGCs. Ischemia injury promoted endocytosis of 293T-Exo by retinal neurons and RGCs. The nuclei were stained with DAPI (blue), 293T-Exo was stained with fluorescent-tag (green), retinal neurons were stained with Beta III tubulin (red), and the nuclei of RGCs were stained with BRN3A (magenta). Scale bar = 25 μm.
The Li/Wang Research Team concluded in their Aging-US Research Output "the results suggest that 293T-Exo is endocytosed by retinal cells through the caveolar endocytic pathway via the integrin receptor. In addition, 293T-Exo exerts a neuroprotective role in the ischemic retina, both >in vitro and in vivo. The findings from the present study demonstrates a significant therapeutic potential of exosomes and provides an understanding of how to develop exosome-based therapies for retinal ischemia."
Full Text - https://www.aging-us.com/article/202245/text
Launched in 2009, Aging-US publishes papers of general interest and biological significance in all fields of aging research as well as topics beyond traditional gerontology, including, but not limited to, cellular and molecular biology, human age-related diseases, pathology in model organisms, cancer, signal transduction pathways (e.g., p53, sirtuins, and PI-3K/AKT/mTOR among others), and approaches to modulating these signaling pathways.